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Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of questions concerning existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.[1] It is broken into four main branches of study which are epistemology, metaphysics, axiology, and logic.[2]


Pre-Socratic Philosophy

Philosophy has spanned multiple eras of thought, the first of which was dubbed Pre-Socratic Philosophy because Socrates does not influence this period. It was dominated primarily by a focus on cosmological and physical speculation which contrasted with later philosophies dominated by a focus on morality spear-headed by Socrates.[5] During this time three main schools of thought appeared: the Ionics, the Pythagoreans, and the Eleatics. The Ionics studied sensory information in nature, the Pythagoreans studied mathematics, and the Eleatics studied the science of metaphysics.[3] The Seven Sages are known as seven wise men of Greece from this period known for their political beliefs and practical philosophical wisdom.[15] Thales of Miletus, born 640 BC, is the best known of the Seven Sages and was known for his proposition that all things come from water.[4]

"The most difficult thing in life is to know vourself." Thales

Ancient Philosophy


Ancient Philosophy started in the west at the end of The Persian War against Greece in 479 BC.[6] Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle are the most important Greek philosophers of this period and helped form the core foundation of philosophy as a study.[6] Socrates, born 469 BC, is one of the founders of Western philosophy whom contributed greatly to the fields of ethics and epistemology and invented Socratic irony and the Socratic method.[7] Plato, born 428 BC, was a student of Socrates and one of the founders of Western philosophy, Western political philosophy and Western spirituality whom contributed greatly to the bases of science and mathematics and invented the dialogue and dialectic forms in philosophy. He additionally added significant contributions to the fields of ethics, metaphysics, and epistemology.[8] Aristotle, born 384 BC, was a student of Plato and one of the founders of Western philosophy whom contributed to a myriad of subjects including physics, biology, zoology, metaphysics, logic, ethics, theology, aesthetics, poetry, theater, music, rhetoric, linguistics, politics and government.[9] Epicurus, born 341 BC, is the founder of a form of hedonist philosophy known as Epicureanism which promotes pleasure in a restrained high quality form.[10] Antisthenes, born 445 BC, was another student of Socrates and is the founder of the Cynic school of thought which promotes living in virtue and agreement with nature.[11]



Ancient Philosophy in China started at 500 BC after the Zhou state was weakened and began the Classical period of Chinese philosophy known as the Hundred Schools of Thought which is considered a Golden Age of Chinese philosophy.[16] Confucius and Laozi (the existence of whom is debated) are the most important Chinese philosophers of this period and strongly affected the formation of Chinese culture. Confucius, born 551 BC, started a philosophy conveyed through a series of moral, social, political and religious teachings called Confucianism based on Chinese culture which promotes unity of oneself with Heaven.[17] Laozi, born 6th Century BC, started a philosophy and religion called Taoism, also known as Daoism, which promotes the Tao (道) which is defined as "the absolute principle underlying the universe, combining within itself the principles of yin and yang and signifying the way, or code of behavior, that is in harmony with the natural order."[18] Numerous other philosophies and schools of thought appeared during this time, a few of which include Legalism, Naturalism, Mohism, Agriculturalism, Xuanxue, and Zen.[19]

By three methods we may LEARN WISDOMM by reflection, which is noblest by imitation, which is easiest by experience, which is the bifferest Confucius


Online Presence

Wikipedia is noted for interestingly having the first link in 94.5% of all articles eventually link to their article on philosophy and this phenomenon has its own Wikipedia article.[21] The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy maintains a regularly updated archive of hundreds of entries on philosophy.[20] The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy is an archive of philosophy maintained by 30 editors and 300 doctorate-level authors which is visited 950k times per month as of July, 2016.[22] The YouTube channel Wisecrack analyzes the philosophy and meaning underlying pieces of pop culture including shows, movies, and video games.[23]

sand fence 93% The most common distance from any entry to Philosophy is 0 snow fence of all Wikipedia pages lead to Philosophy (that's 3.5 million pages) 23 clicks 50,000 Wikipedia pages end in loops Data: Mat Kelcey/


Fan Art

I WANT TO STOP PHILOSOPHIZING BUT I KANT We do not escape into philosophy, psychology, and art we go there to restore our shattered selves into whole ones. Anais Nin "Religion ends and philosophy begins, just as alchemy ends and chemistry begins and astrology ends, and astronomy begins." ~ Christopher Hitchens PICTUREQU﹀TES. on PHILOSOPHY MAJOR HASTOFINDWORKIN ANCIENT GREECE



Politics (from Greek πολιτικός politikos, literally “of, for, or relating to citizens”)[24] is the practice and study of influencing the policies, interpretations, and actions of government.[25] It encompasses a range of broad topics including political science, political history, and political philosophy. Political history encompasses the evolution of ideas, leaders, movements, and entities and how these influence society especially when political entities evolve into governments.[26] Originally there were kinships and these kinships evolved into nomadic tribes which over time evolved into early forms of government predating recorded history.[27] Egypt’s history began around 8,000BC as a series of tribes[28] which around 3150BC, the beginning of Egypt’s Early Dynastic Period, unified into a kingdom and was arguably the earliest recorded government in history.[29]



Religion is a system of beliefs and worship, often including a code of ethics. Oftentimes an adherent to religion will conduct rites of worship to a higher power or powers, sometimes but not always including prayer, sermons, and/or sacrifice. The origins of religion are hotly debated.

The evolutionary tree of religion Version 2.0 ODYSSEY European African Middle East Indian East AsianArctic N. American Central /Mesoamerica S. American New Guinean /Australian Oceanic Transported to the Americas via the slave Asatrú Rodn90CE 1890 CE 1772CE Baha'i Faith 1844 CE Macumba 1900 CE Ayyavazhi Mormonism 1954 CE 1900 CESanto Daime 1930 CE Druidism 1954 CE 1904 CE 1887 CE 1912 CÉ 1870 CE 1809 CE 1833 CE 1830 CE 1800 CE Plateau ShamanismOO CE 1550 CE 1550 CE 1550 CE 1500 CE 1270 CE 200 CE Sikhism 1517 CE 1000 CE 1100 CE 1407 CE 850 CE 800 CE 1200 CE East Orthodox Catholicism 1000 CE 1054 CE 1054 CE 750 858 CE 600 CE800 CE 500 250 CE940 CE 270 CE 200 CE 250 Hellenisnm 300 BCE 300 BCE620 CE 250 BCE 550 500 BCE 500 BCE 300 BCEHopewell Sramanism 500 BCE 800 BCE 250 BCE 200 BCE 500 BCE Jainism 1000 BCE 1200 BCE 1000 BCE Poytheism 950 BCE 1700 BCE 750 BCE 520 BCE Snamanism 1500 BCE 1850 BCE 1500 BCE 2000 BCE folk religions 2000 BCE1000 BCE Polytheism 2000 BCE 900 BCE Earty Hindu 1700 BCE 2000 BCE2000 BCE 3500 BCE LH 3000 BCE Egyptian 2500 BCE Shamanism 3300 BCE 3000 BCE 3000 BCE 3500 BCE 3000 BCE 4000 BCE Archaic Indian 4500 BCE Shamanism 4500 BCE 5000 BCE 000 BCE 9000 BCE 000 BCE EastSouth Asian A proposed onigin language trom Eurasia that unites the majority of worid languages. it is speculated that the people who spoke this anclent tongue were practtoners of Animism12,500 BCE 40,000 Dreamtime 40,000 BCE 12,500 CE 10,000 BCE 8000 BCE 12,500 BCE 40,000 BCE 40,000 BCE TA This graphic Mustrates how thils Nostratic faith may have spread out across the continents, folowing the into the muittude of reiglons we tis possibie the ear est sign of re glous actvity are familar with today. Influenced by another religion the oigins to many of can be traced back to the Middie Palaeoäthic where our distant ancestors began to bury their dead in a rituaßstic manner, and create symboic artefacts (early signiters of spintual activity) these faiths are estimates onty Md ould bot be counted as fact. This chart ANIMISM: 100,000 BCE Adapted from another religion offer anapproximation to the founding Cates of 。DESIGNED BY SIMON E. DAVIES | FACEBOOK.COM/HUMANODYSSEY


Transhumanism is a futurist philosophy and intellectual movement with the purpose of transforming the humanity by developing technologies that greatly enhance the physical and psychological capabilities of humans.[13] Strongly influenced by works of science fiction, the transhumanist vision of a technologically transformed humanity has gained a large and diverse following online.



Nihilism is a philosophical belief which asserts that the universe lacks cosmic or objective meaning and that life has no intrinsic value. Online, philosophical axioms associated with existential nihilism have been paired with various pop culture references and Internet memes for comedic effect in the form of anti-jokes.

NO LIVES MATTER abou ick about y füek abdü the universe doesn't qive


Philosoraptor is an advice animal image macro series featuring an illustration of a Velociraptor paired with captions depicting the dinosaur as being deeply immersed in metaphysical inquiries or unraveling quirky paradoxes. On October 8th, 2008, the original illustration of the Philosoraptor was released and copyrighted by creator Sam Smith as a T-shirt design for sale on the online retailer LonelyDinosaur[12] (shown below).


Wise Confucius

Wise Confucius (also known as “Confucius Says”) is an advice animal image macro series which features what at first glance appears to be sage piece of advice, with the second half of the image revealing it to merely be the set-up for a pun. The meme can often involve some kind of stereotypical Engrish speech pattern as well. The series is named after the famous Chinese philosopher best known for his body of work Analects of Confucius and parodies his prolific writings of axioms and wise sayings like “Do not do to others what you do not want done to yourself.” Written during the Spring and Autumn Period through the Warring States Period (ca. 475 BCE – 221 BCE), the Analects is the representative work of Confucianism and continues to have a tremendous influence on Chinese and East Asian thought and values today.


Give Her The Dick

Give Her The Dick (also known as “Give Her the D”) is an expression used on image boards and discussion forums in reference to an infamous comment left on the adult media website Pornhub. In honoring the original commenter’s choice of avatar, the humorous quote is often accompanied by a portrait of the French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist René Descartes.

ross53545- 3 years ago give her the d---

Search Interest

External References

[1] Wikipedia – Philosophy

[2] EDUPlugged – Which of the four basic areas of philosophy (epistemology, metaphysics, axiology, and logic) is most useful for teachers?

[3] University of Notre Dame – First Period. Pre-Socratic Philosophy.

[4] University of Notre Dame – Thales of Miletus

[5] Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy – Presocratic Philosophy

[6] - Professor James E. Mahon – THE PERSIAN WAR

[7] Wikipedia – Socrates

[8] Wikipedia – Plato

[9] Wikipedia – Aristotle

[10] Wikipedia – Epicurus

[11] Wikipedia – Antisthenes

[12] EnchantedLearning – Dinosaur Favorites

[13] Wikipedia – Transhumanism

[14] Wikipedia – Principia Mathematica

[15] Greek Names – Names of the 7 Sages of Ancient Greece

[16] Wikipedia – Chinese Philosophy – Spring and Autumn Period

[17] Wikipedia – Confucianism – Theory and Theology

[18] Google – Tao

[19] China Highlights – Warring States Period

[20] Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy – Table of Contents

[21] Wikipedia – Getting to Philosophy

[22] Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy – About

[23] YouTube – Wisecrack

[24] Wikipedia – Politics

[25] Merriam Webster – Politics

[26] Wikipedia – Political World History

[27] History World – The State, The Earliest Forms of Government

[28] Ancient – Ancient Egypt

[29] Ancient – Early Dynastic Period in Ancient Egypt

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