Mars Exploration

Mars Exploration

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Updated Feb 28, 2021 at 09:07AM EST by Y F.

Added Aug 07, 2012 at 06:00PM EDT by amanda b..

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Mars Exploration is a scientific research mission undertaken by various national space exploration programs to learn more about the environment and possible life on planet Mars, as well as to prepare for any possible human mission in the future. The ongoing efforts led by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Adminstration has been chronicled online since the inception of the Mars Exploration Rover program[1] on July 28th, 2000.


Pre-Rover Mission: Pathfinder (1997)

The Mars Pathfinder was an exploration probe launched on December 4th, 1996. On July 4th, 1997, the probe landed on the planet's Chryse Planitia region to conduct experiments on the surface. MSNBC[61] published an article titled "Internet Users Follow Mars Missions", which reported that NASA was struggling to cope with Internet traffic after the Pathfinder reached the surface of Mars on July 4th. The NASA Pathfinder website received several awards[60], including 1998 Best of the Net, Los Angeles Times 1997 Pick, Cool Site of the Day and Family Site of the Day. On July 14th, the Los Angeles Times[62] published an article titled "Millions Visit Mars -- on the Internet", which reported that the network of mirror sites hosting information about the probe average about 40 to 45 million hits a day.

Spirit and Opportunity (2004)

The U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Adminstration's (NASA)[2] Jet Propulsion Laboratory announced the Mars Exploration Rover mission on July 28th, 2000 after losing two Mars probes in 1999.[3] On June 8th, 2003, the two rovers were given the names Spirit[8] and Opportunity[9] by 9-year-old Sofi Collis in an essay contest.[4] Spirit was launched two days later on the 10th from Cape Canaveral, Florida. Just short of a month later, on July 7th, Opportunity went on its way. The rovers did not land until January 2004.

The rovers made significant discoveries while on Mars; within the first month of its landing, Opportunity found mineral spheres dubbed "blueberries"[5] that alluded to water possibly existing on the planet. In May 2007, Spirit uncovered a patch of soil composed of 90% silica[6], which scientists concluded was concentrated by a water source. Though the two rovers only had a 90 Sol (Martian Days, 92.5 Earth days) mission, Opportunity continues its research, as of August 2012. Spirit was active until March 20th, 2010, after it had been stuck on flat ground for 10 months.

Curiosity (2012)

A third rover, Curiosity[10], was launched on November 26, 2011, landing on the planet on August 6th, 2012. Its name was chosen on May 27th, 2009 by sixth grader Clara Ma[16] who won a Twitter-launched NASA essay contest.[29] During its landing, the rover live-tweeted the event from its official Twitter account.[44]

Online Presence

The Mars Science Laboratory maintains an active mission page[14], highlighting news from Curiosity and a vast image gallery[59] with thousands of photos from the rovers. There is also an Image of the Day[56] feature, highlighting one of those photos with a blurb about its context.. NASA created a Facebook[7] page for the Mars Exploration Rovers in January 2008, transitioning it from a personal profile to a fan page on May 8th, 2009. As of August 2012, this page has 24,103 likes. Curiosity's Facebook fan page[15] was created on July 6th, 2010, and has 260,000 likes as of August 2012. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory joined YouTube[17] on January 17th, 2007 and began posting videos from its rovers that day. However, the channel only receives 4705 views a day. They also maintain a Ustream account[18] for streaming events.

On Twitter, NASA's main account[11] has nearly 2.7 million followers, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory[12] has more than 335,000 followers, Spirit and Opportunity[19] have 161,000 followers and Curiosity[13] has nearly 821,000 followers.

Notable Developments

Curiosity (2012 – Present)

After Curiosity's landing on Monday, August 6th, 2012, the hashtags #MSL[25] (short for Mars Science Laboratory), #Mars[28] and #Curiosity[26] each began to trend, with #MSL[27] trending on Google+. The offical Oreo Twitter account tweeted[57] a photo of an open Oreo cookie with red cream with rover tracks going across it as part of their Daily Twist[58] news commentary series to commemorate the event. Additionally, the rover was given a part in that day's Google Doodle, which was mainly focused on the 2012 Olympics.

AUG 5 | MARS ROVER LANDS Red cre me currently unavaikable

NASA live streamed the landing, which involved a sequence never attempted previously, with a sky crane and an automated program which would cause the rover to land itself. Streaming was covered by Mediaite[45], Mashable[46], Wired[47] and the Huffington Post.[48] While British newspaper the Telegraph[49] did not host the live stream, they provided a play by play of the landing as it was happening.

Outside of official NASA feeds, other feeds and watch parties for the Curiosity landing were provided by PBS Newshour[50], nonprofit organization Explore Mars[51], the YouTube channel Universe Today[52] and San Francisco Museum the Exploratorium.[53] On Tumblr, viewers and fans began posting images of Curiosity's landing as well as images the rover has taken on Mars with the hashtags #curiosity[54] and #mars.[55]

Bobak Ferdowski

Bobak Ferdowski, a NASA engineer and flight director of the Curiosity mission, was given the nickname NASA Mohawk Guy during the live coverage of the rover's landing. His mohawk haircut with stars shaved into the side of his head drew the attention of Twitter[36], Reddit[34] and Tumblr[35] users, who began sharing his photo and making fan art and image macros featuring the engineer. Ferdowski's unexpected popularity was reported by Cnet[38], the Daily Dot[39], the Huffington Post[40], the Atlantic[41], Buzzfeed[42] and Jezebel.[43]


Parody Twitter Accounts

Within 72 hours of the rover's landing, Curiosity inspired four parody Twitter accounts. While three of them, @MarsRoverSwag[24], @MarsCuroisity[20] and @SarcasticRover[23] focused on a sardonic approach to Curiosity's normal tweets, @BiCuriousRover[22]'s humor focuses on gay culture. These accounts were featured on the Huffington Post[29], George Takei's Facebook[30], the New Zealand Listener[31], WebProNews[32] and the Daily Dot.[33]

Image Feeds

Since its landing in August, the Curiosity rover has captured and transmitted an extensive collection of raw images of the planet's surface using its high-resolution MastCams, two navigation cameras, the ChemCam laser instrument and the Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI). The images, which largely comprises of landscape photographs and close-up shots of the soil's texture, have been regularly featured in the mainstream news circuit as well on as space news blogs like Wired and the Huffington Post among many others.

Finding on Martian Radiation Level

On November 16th, NASA revealed the Rover's new finding that the radiation levels on Mars may be tolerable or non-lethal for humans residing on the planet. Although the hypothetical conjecture discounted the astronaut's prolonged exposure to radiations during the course of the round trip that can take eight to nine months each way, the news was largely met by a high sense of optimism in the space news blogosphere with headlines proclaiming that "humans could survive Mars radiation," as well as numerous discussion threads on Reddit's /r/news, /r/space, /r/curiosityrover and /r/science subreddit forums.

Search of Life on Mars

  • During an interview with NPR on November 20th, NASA's Curiosity chief scientist John Grotzinger revealed that the U.S. space agency is planning to announce a "major discovery" in early December that could go in the history books, albeit without disclosing any specific details as to the nature of its finding. Grotzinger's remark led to the rise of speculations in the scientific community that the probe may have discovered scientific evidence of organic life on Mars.
  • On March 12th, 2013, NASA scientists announced that Mars was capable of supporting microbial life in the distant past. According to Curiosity rover's chemical analysis of a rock it had sampled in February, the rock contains abundant clay minerals with key life ingredients, including sulfur, nitrogen, hydrogen, oxygen, phosphorus and carbon.
  • On September 25th, Nature Geoscience published an article by a team of scientists led by Lujendra Ojha of the Georgia Institute of Technology which reported that there are seasonal flows of salty water in mountainous regions of the present-day Martian surface, supported by the NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's analysis of high-resolution satellite images and detection of perchlorates, a type of hydrated salts, on the surface of the Red Planet.

Determining whether liquid water exi is central to understanding the hydrologic cycle and potential for extant life on Mars. Recurring slope lineae, narrow streaks of low reflectance compared to the surrounding terrain, appear and grow incrementally in the downslope direction during warm seasons when temperatures reach about 250-300 K, a pattern consistent with the transient flow of a volatile species1-3. Brine flows (or seeps) have been proposed to explain the formation of recurring slope lineae3, yet no direct evidence for either liquid water or hydrated salts has been found4. Here we analyse spectral data from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars instrument onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter from four different locations where recurring slope lineae are present. We find evidence for hydrated salts at all four locations in the seasons when recurring slope lineae are most extensive, which suggests that the source of hydration is recurring slope lineae activity. The hydrated salts most consistent with the spectral absorption features we detect are magnesium perchlorate, magnesium chlorate and sodium perchlorate. Our findings strongly support the hypothesis that recurring slope lineae form as a result of contemporary water activity on Mars. sts on the Martian surface

On September 28th, the report was confirmed by NASA scientists in a special press conference and online via NASA's Twitter account. In less than 24 hours, the post garnered more than 44,400 retweets and 29,000 favorites

Throughout the day, the hashtag #MarsAnnouncement was tweeted more than 92,000 times.

Salman Rushdie Ξ¦ @SalmanRushdie "Is there life on Mars?" - D. Bowie. "Well there's water, so... stay tuned." - NASA The Guardian @guardian Nasa scientists find evidence of flowing water on Mars RETWEETSFAVORITES 164 174 9:11 AM-28 Sep 2015 T. Kyle @tkylemao Remember in 2000 when they found a copy of "Oops!.. Did It Again" on the surface of Mars? GIF RETWEETSFAVORITES 83 91 10:05 AM-28 Sep 2015 Rhys James @rhysjamesy Running water found on mars, Protests at cereal bars, The Moon is turning blood red, Cameron boned a pig head, WE DIDN'T START THE FIRE RETWEETSFAVORITES 10:01 AM-28 Sep 2015
Austin @Pama l could have told you water was on mars years ago... arrs RETWEETS FAVORITES 243 601 10:01 AM-28 Sep 2015 Disney Pixar IDianoylicar DisneyPxar An intergalactic transmission from the Red Planet. #MarsAnnouncement BUZZ LIGHTYEAR MISSION LOG ALL SIGNS POINTTO THIS PLANET AS THE LOCATION OF... LIQUID WATER GIF The Martian Movie MartianMovie @NASA Good news for mankind. GREAT news for Watney. #MarsAnnouncement #TheMartian BRIN WATNEY STRA MATT DAMON MARTIAN HARRY GREBSON-WILLIAMSMON KINBERG RIDLEY SDOTT MICHAEL SHAEFER ADITYA SOOD MARCHUFFA OLEY SCOT COMING SOON RETWEETS FAVORITES 11:24 AM - 28 Sep 2015


Opportunity Rover Mission End

On February 12th, 2019, @MarsRovers[71] Twitter account announced that the last attempts to reach the Opportunity rover, last contacted during a planet-wide dust storm on June 10, 2018, would be made on that day. On February 13th, 2019, NASA held a briefing session[72], during which NASA's Associate Administrator Thomas Zurbuchen announced the end of the Opportunity mission.

I was there yesterday. I was there with the team as these commands went out, into the deep sky, and I learned this morning that we had not heard back, and our beloved Opportunity remained silent.
I’m standing here with a sense of deep appreciation and gratitude that I declare the Opportunity mission as complete.

The announcement of the 15-year-long mission coming to an end caused a major public reaction, with #ThanksOppy hashtag being launched by NASA[72] to honor the memory of the rover and multiple wholesome memes being posted on Reddit, Twitter and other platforms.

Come join us, Opportunity I've seen things you people wouldn't believe Lightning off the cliffs of Olympus Mons I watched the sun set from the Tharsis Rise All those moments willlbe lost in time Like dust in-a storm er lime to die Elon Musk @elonmusk l'd like to take the Opportunity to press F to pay respects for our fallen Mars rover #ThanksOppy 05:05 PM-13 Feb 19 1,069 Retweets 4,201 Likes
Roses are red I dont feel so good, Mr Stark Last message from the Opportunity rover "My Battries are low, and it's getting dark." R.I.P. Mars Opportunity Rover, 25 Jan 2003 - 13 Feb 2019 Thanks Guys! long Partner when people on the internet start paying you respect for your discoveries *mechanical happiness*

Search Interest

External References

[1] NASA – Mars Exploration Rovers

[2] Wikipedia – NASA

[3] BBC – New probe for Mars

[4] Jet Propulsion Laborator – Girl with Dreams Names Mars Rovers 'Spirit' and 'Opportunity'

[5] Mars Exploration Rovers – Mineral in Mars 'Berries' Adds to Water Story

[6] NASA – Mars Rover Spirit Unearths Surprise Evidence of Wetter Past

[7] Facebook – Mars Exploration Rovers

[8] Wikipedia – Spirit Rover

[9] Wikipedia – Opportunity Rover

[10] Wikipedia – Curiosity Rover

[11] Twitter – @NASA

[12] Twitter – @NASAJPL</a.

[13] Twitter – @MarsCuriosity

[14] NASA – Mars Science Laboratory

[15] Facebook – NASA's Curiosity Mars Rover

[16] Mars Science Laboratory – Curiosity,' Meet Clara

[17] YouTube – Jet Propulsion Laboratory's channel

[18] Ustream – Curiosity Cam

[19] Twitter – @MarsRovers

[20] Twitter – @MarsCuroisity

[22] Twitter – @BiCuriousRover

[23] Twitter – @SarcasticRover

[24] Twitter – @MarsRoverSwag

[25] Twitter – #MSL

[26] Twitter – #Curiosity

[27] Google+ – #MSL

[28] Twitter – #Mars

[29] Mashable – Curiosity Rover is Female and She's on Twitter

[29] Huffington Post – BiCuriosity Rover, Parody Twitter Account, Comments On Ryan Lochte And Chick-Fil-A Controversy

[30] Facebook – George Takei: Red rover, red rover, your tweets are all over…

[31] New Zealand Listener – Best of the Mars Curiosity Twitter parodies

[32] WebProNews – Mars Rover Just Wants to Watch Breaking Bad

[33] Daily Dot – The best of Twitter's hilarious Sarcastic Mars Rover

[35] Tumblr – Fuck Yeah Bobak Ferdowski

[36] Reddit – LadyBoners: Mohawk man from NASA's live coverage of Curiosity.

[37] Twitter – Search for NASA Mohawk

[38] CNet – NASA mohawk heartthrob racks up Twitter marriage proposals

[39] The Daily Dot – NASA engineer pilots Mars Rover through space, into Internet's heart

[40] The Huffington Post – Bobak Ferdowsi's Mohawk Blows Up Twitter As NASA's Curiosity Rover Lands On Mars

[41] The Atlantic – The Curiosity Landing Already Has a Meme: NASA's 'Mohawk Guy'

[42] Buzzfeed – America Lands Mars Curiosity, Meets Bobak Ferdowsi

[43] Jezebel – We’ve Landed a Rover on Mars, But All Anyone’s Talking About Is This Guy’s Mohawk

[44] Mashable – Tweeting Truck Lands on Mars, Internet Explodes With Joy

[45] Mediaite – Watch The NASA Live Stream Of Curiosity Rover Landing On Mars

[46] Mashable – Watch the Mars Curiosity Landing Live

[47] Wired – Watch Live: Curiosity Rover Attempts to Land on Mars

[48] Huffington Post – Mars Landing Live Coverage: NASA Rover Curiosity Touches Down On Red Planet

[49] The Telegraph – Nasa Curiosity Landing: as it happened

[50] PBS Newshour – Mars Exploration Rovers

[51] Explore Mars – Curiosity

[52] YouTube – Universe Today

[53] Exploratorium – Return To Mars

[54] Tumblr – Posts tagged #curiosity

[55] Tumblr – Posts tagged #mars

[56] NASA – Image of the Day Gallery

[57] Twitter – @Oreo's Mars Tweet

[58] Oreo – Daily Twist

[59] NASA – Image Gallery

[60] NASA – Mars Pathfinder Web Site Awards

[61] NASA – MSNBC Internet Users Follow Mars Missions

[62] Los Angeles Times – Millions Visit Mars – On the Internet

[63] Wired – Curiosity Rover Takes Best Self-Portrait Ever

[64] Huffington Post – Curiosity Self-Portrait: Mars Rover Stitches Together Spectacular New 'Selfie'

[65] Reddit – Curiosity Rover Finds that Humans Could Survive Mars Radiation

[66] Reddit – Mars is safe from radiation – but the trip there isn't

[67] Reddit – Astronauts Could Survive Mars Radiation, Curiosity Rover Finds

[68] Reddit – Mars radiation levels tolerable to humans

[69] Nature Geoscience – Spectral Evidence for Hydrated Salts in Recurring Slope Lineae on Mars

[70] TIME – Here Are Twitter’s Best Jokes About Water on Mars

[71] Twitter – @MarsRovers' Tweet

[72] Twitter – @NASA's Tweet

[73] Twitter – @JimBridestine's Tweet

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