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Nickelodeon is an American cable and satellite network owned by MTV Networks, a division of Viacom. It's known for it's television programming (both animated and live-action), movies and several other things. 
Nickelodeon first began in 1977 under the name Pinwheel. 2 years later, it would relaunch under it's current name. It's main programming were aimed for children, giving it the nickname "The First Kids' Network". It would however take until the 90s when Nickelodeon would begin producing their own content rather than licensing from other networks. 
Doug was Nickelodeon's first Nicktoon. It's also rather unique in that the show ran in 2 different networks during it run. Nick still has the airing rights to the episodes they originally aired.
The Ren and Stimpy Show
The Ren and Stimpy Show was Nickelodeon's most controversial Nicktoon. It's noted for it's gross out humor, outlandish visuals and gathering many complaints from parents at the time.
Dora the Explorer
Dora the Explorer is Nickelodeon's most popular Nicktoon in the Nick Jr. line up. The show is focused on teaching Spanish words to viewers as Dora travels around in a point-and-click game.
The Fairly Oddparents
The Fairly Oddparents is another popular Nicktoon. The show revolved around protagonist Timmy Turner who lives under the care of an abusive baby-sitter named Vicky and is helped by his fairy god parents. This show notably did a few crossovers with the show Jimmy Neutron.
Invader Zim was another controversial Nicktoon. It revolved around an alien named Zim who disguised himself as a human to take over Earth. It is well-known for it's dark humor and satirical nature in addition to its cult-like fanbase hoping for it's revival.
The Adventures of Jimmy Neutron: Boy Genius
The Adventures of Jimmy Neutron: Boy Genius was Nickelodeon's first CG Nicktoon. The show focused on a child genius and inventor named Jimmy Neutron going on science-themed adventures. It's humor and scientific nature made it popular on the internet. After the show ended, there was a spin-off made about the foolish side-character Sheen. It was very poorly received.
My Life as a Teenage Robot
My Life as a Teenage Robot was an animated cartoon that premiered as a short in Frederator’s Oh Yeah! Cartoons in 2003. The focus of the show was on a 16-year-old robot girl named XJ-9, commonly referred as Jenny, who was built by her mother Dr. Nora Wakeman. Jenny's purpose was intended for protecting Earth from various threats, though tending to be more interested in attempting to live like a regular teenage girl.
Drake and Josh
Drake and Josh was a popular program that aired in the TeenNick block. Brothers Drake and Josh live very different lives with Megan, an antagonistic genius little sister. Quotes from the show have been popular in the internet.
Avatar: The Last Airbender/The Legend of Korra
Avatar: The Last Airbender and The Legend of Korra are 2 immensely popular Nicktoons on the internet that take place in the same universe. Avatar: the Last Airbender is about an air-nomad named Aang who must learn to bend all four elements in order to defeat Fire Lord Ozai. The Legend of Korra takes place decades after Aang has passed and is about a water-tribe girl named Korra who must learn all four elements plus spirit-bending in order to defeat various threats to the world. Both shows have dedicated fanbases that have made a lot of fanart and memes based around the show.
Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles
Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles is a franchise that Viacom acquired in 2011, Nickelodeon launched a new series in 2012. The latest incarnation of turtles has been popular by taking larger comedic leaps from the TMNT franchise while also staying true to the TMNT name.
The Loud House
The Loud House is one of the latest Nicktoons, having premiered in 2016. It stars Lincoln Loud and it revolves are around his life as the only boy in a family of eleven siblings. It not only gained popularity around the net, but it also became one of Nick's highest rated programs in an surprisingly short time.